Posters 2020 8th Young Scientists Journal Conference

Comparing the Effect of Smoking Cessation on BMI Between Males and Females

Research Question and Investigation
Smoking and obesity are both independent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. When smokers are encouraged to quit smoking they tend to gain weight and some are likely to become obese. Obesity, commonly assessed by Body Mass Index (BMI), has a strong association with acute medical conditions, reduced health-related quality of life, and increased healthcare and medication spending. This review explores the effect of smoking cessation on BMI of males and females of different age groups.


Bedroom spectrometry using LEGO and LEDs

My fascination in fluorescence first began when synthesising fluorescein on a medicinal chemistry course and I later saw its uses in sequencing DNA at a conference in London. I had hoped to asses the role of the chloride ion in the process of static quenching in the dye, Rhodamine B. However with the labs unaccessible due to the Covid-19 pandemic, I set out to complete my own photochemistry from the comfort of my bedroom, deciding to build my own apparatus in order to accomplish this task. Using the design of Norwegian professors, I built a combined UV photometer and fluorescence spectrometer using LEGO and LEDs. The temperature dependence of the fluorescent emission of quinine in tonic water was found using the homemade combined UV photometer and fluorescence spectrometer constructed out of LEGO and LEDs. The data was analysed using a hypothesis test of the PMCC and a negative correlation found. Further investigations using the homemade apparatus identified the most probable cause of the temperature dependence as the increased amount of dynamic quenching present at higher temperatures or shift in the emission spectra that were undetectable with the apparatus used. The spectrometer is currently being upgraded to have a modular design that will enable for the testing of fluorescent and absorbent intensities at a range of wavelengths enabling for further conclusions to be drawn. Throughout the investigation, I was able to calculate uncertainties and use the hypothesis tests to test how effective the apparatus that I had built was. In the future I hope conduct further experiments using the same device!
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Proving Reflective Property of Conics using Celestial Mechanics

Celestial mechanics is defined as the branch of astronomy that deals with the motions of objects in outer space. A celestial body revolves around another body in either a circular, elliptical, parabolic or hyperbolic orbit. These shapes are the basic conic structures as well and are one of the most important geometrical shapes (after probably triangles and rectangles). Conics have many amazing properties, one of them being reflective property. This property states that any light ray sent from one of the focal points of a conic will be reflected into a light ray towards the other focus. In the case of a parabola, the second focus is assumed to be the point of infinity. This property is particularly useful as it is used in many commercial applications like car mirrors, headlights, telescopes, whispering galleries and even in medical procedures like Lithotripsy. There has been many different ways to prove the reflective property of conics including using euclidean geometry,coordinate geometry and vectors [1,2]. In this article, an alternate method using celestial mechanics will be used to prove the reflective property of the conics. In particular, the laws on conservation of mechanical energy and conservation of angular momentum will be used to prove the optical property of all the three types of conics i.e. parabola,ellipse and hyperbola.To the best of the knowledge, this is an original method as the author has not found any prior art on this. This will also enhance the relation between two seemingly disjoint fields - mathematics and astronomy.


Detecting Open-angle Glaucoma Based on a Two-parts Deep Learning Architectures

Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness that is responsible for 15% percent of the total world blindness. It is a chronic eye disease that damages the optic nerve and causes irreversible blindness at its terminal stage. Open-angle glaucoma is the most common and unpredictable form of glaucoma due to its nature of asymptomatic. Although being treatable at its early stage, most patients with open-angle glaucoma are unaware of it and thus receive no treatment. This project proposes a feasible and accurate system to detect open-angle glaucoma and deploy it into a web application accessible to everyone connected to the Internet. Using a combination of two deep learning architectures: Single Shot MultiBox Detector (SSD) and Visual Geometry Group Neural Network (VggNet), the system can accurately extract the optic disc area from a picture of the retina and detect glaucoma patterns on it. This paper innovatively combined object detection and object classification neural networks, which improve the performance significantly and allow for training with large-scale training datasets without manual preprocessing. The training datasets were obtained from multiple public databases, consisting of 5532 images of fundus, including 3670 images labeled with the optic disc areas, 901 normal fundi, and 761 fundi with open-angle glaucoma. The system's accuracy was 98.8% (AUC=0.994) after testing with a separate dataset of 332 images of the fundus. Based on these models, a web interface has been developed using the React framework with Flask Rest APIs. It has now been hosted at


The relationship between musical structures and birdsong

Birdsong has inspired musicians from around the world for many years. These vocalisations are produced by the avian voice-box: the syrinx. Research has discovered many links between music and bird vocalisation through the comparison of musical elements to bird songs and calls.

The objective of this investigative study is to see whether musical structures (including contrast, continuity, and repetition) can be applied to birdsong. Further research is done to investigate whether the complexity of the structure is influenced by the musculature of the syrinx and the habitat of the bird. Syringeal complexity is determined by examining the taxonomy of the birds being studied; sub-orders of passeriformes (songbirds): oscines & sub-oscines are studied. Habitat is considered by categorising the location of birds into open country or forest.

All structures were recorded in a table for comparison and motifs were alphabetically indicated for each song from a list of pairs of oscines and sub-oscines split by habitat type. Any further qualitative descriptions were recorded. Fisher’s Exact Test was used to test for significance between (i) complexity and habitat and (ii) complexity and taxonomical sub-division.

The results show that musical structures can be applied to bird songs. Oscines, proportionally, have significantly more complex songs than sub-oscines. Although there is no statistical significance between open country and woodland birds’ structural complexity, there seems to be a trend that open country birds have more complex structures than woodland birds.

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The cockroach farms in China are reported to be effective in recycling city food waste. It was suspected that the same system can also be used to solve the school’s food waste problem in England, so the feasibility of this idea was investigated by answering five sub-questions, which included economic aspect, ecological aspect, and hygienic aspect. A first-hand experiment involving two cockroach species was conducted in the school Wellington college to answer the questions, and the results agree with many hypothetical strengths of this idea while suggesting a few limitations that have to be solved before practising it. On average, each adult Dubia roach eats 1.534g of food waste per day when the temperatures are below 23℃ and 1.864g when below 23℃. For adult American cockroaches, the figures are 1.000g and 1.863g corresponding to below or above 23℃. Both results strongly suggest that higher temperature is crucial for better performances of cockroaches because the T-values(2.474 and 3.378) are all bigger than the critical value. Overall, the average amount of food waste intake by individual growing Dubia roach is 0.0301g per day. ). Ecologically 38.03 percent of food waste (dry mass) is recycled into cockroaches’ body mass which suggests the system is relatively efficient in terms of biomass transfer. Economically the system does not require too much space (as in Wellington college around 1 million cockroaches are needed to recycle yearly 48 tonnes of food waste but only required around 500 m^3space) and is able to bring extra funds to schools (cockroaches such as Dubia roaches are popular as live feeders on market). However, the whole process must be very carefully isolated from any external contamination to avoid disease transmission, and the requirement of heating apparatus increases the cost while also contributing to the emission of greenhouse gases.


The Effectiveness of Guided Art Therapy on Mood in the Elderly

Art therapy is characterized as a creative process that enlivens individuals and communities. It enhances cognition, increases self-awareness and self-esteem, and builds emotional resilience [1]. Many previously performed studies affirm the effectiveness of art therapy on a range of people from cancer patients to the elderly with varying levels of cognitive decline. The positive psychological benefits of art have been assessed with advanced technology that show a correlation between changes in neurological activity and happiness and relaxation. Although most studies conducted had participants engage in freestyle drawing or painting, this study was done to examine the effectiveness of guided painting in a group setting as some individuals who question their artistic abilities may find it difficult to paint without any direction from an instructor. It was a prospective single-arm interventional study and was specifically targeted towards older individuals in various assisted living facilities to investigate whether a positive correlation exists between art and mood. Guided painting sessions were taught so that the painting would be broken down into a series of manageable steps without seeming overwhelming to the participants. The subjects were divided into four groups and evaluated, upon conclusion of the art session, using a survey to rate their mood on a scale of 1 to 5 before and after painting. Results showed that in 86.67% of the participants, painting enhanced their mood with fine (3) being the highest recorded mood before and good (4) after painting. Each resident interpreted the same painting in a multitude of ways and produced paintings with subtle differences, illustrating how art fosters self- expression and promotes the release of less conscious emotions. Furthermore, the enhancement of mood after painting may have been due to cathartic release, a distraction from ruminative thoughts, heightened cognitive skills, or the sociability of the activity. In the future, a randomized controlled trial could be performed with one group partaking in the guided painting session while another group is simply visited by a volunteer to eliminate social factors that may have influenced the study.


Studies on Copper induced stability changes in DNA fragment and its relevance to Alzheimer’s disease.

The conformation and stability of DNA is crucial for the body to maintain metabolic homeostasis and carry out some of the crucial processes such as protein synthesis and DNA repair mechanisms. Copper (Cu) is an etiological pathway involved in Alzheimer’s biology. I investigated to understand the role Cu plays in changing B-DNA to Z-DNA. The purpose of this investigation is to analyze the interaction of Cu with a fragment of synthesized DNA (GCA ATC TAA TCC CTA) used as a model when it is in a B-DNA form. The studies showed that Cu causes B-DNA to change into an altered version of B-DNA. The interaction between Cu and the DNA was also visualized through Circular Dichroism, molecular docking, UV absorption & Fluorescence Studies where Cu formed hydrogen bonds during its interaction with the DNA fragment.
Discussion: Copper, the etiological factor that binds to DNA has an affinity to the nitrogenous bases that make up DNA. Cu has a strong affinity to the guanine and cytosine bases resulting in hydrogen bonds being formed. Cu causes a change in the conformation of the DNA helix by causing one of the bases to rotate around its glycosidic bond linkage causing an unwinding of the DNA double helix. This unwinding causes DNA to shift from its regular B-DNA conformation into a modified B-DNA conformation that is said to cause neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s.
Conclusion: The aim of this investigation was to demonstrate the relationship between Cu and the DNA and how increasing concentrations of Cu exposed to DNA could result in DNA damage and conformation change which may eventually lead to neurological disorders. In addition, through computational studies, it is evident how these two substances form hydrogen bonds with the DNA’s nitrogenous bases causing the DNA molecule to change conformation.


The Neptune Project

The Neptune Project aims to mitigate the adverse effects of lead contamination in water using a machine learning model and a novel test (indicator). Lead exposure affects children in more than 4 million American households, resulting in irreversible brain damage (​IHME, University of Washington, 2018)​. Few states in the USA test all children for lead poisoning: it is too expensive and cumbersome (Safer Chemicals, Healthy Families, 2017). However, California conducts and publishes testing data. The Neptune Project runs data analyses to find correlations between this dataset and a variety of census data. This trains a machine learning (ML) predictive model which can be applied nationwide in order to identify the areas most susceptible to lead contamination. The Neptune Project has also developed an affordable, easily administrable test for lead contamination of water which can be mass-distributed in communities most at risk for lead poisoning. The ML model pinpoints communities with unsafe lead levels with 67% accuracy, using boosted regression trees. This accuracy rating is revolutionary as it can be used to reach lead-poisoned communities that would otherwise suffer harm since lead is both odorless and colorless in water. The indicator is still in prototyping stages. The filter paper is submerged in a solution of acetic acid and sodium rhodizonate. Sodium rhodizonate reacts with aqueous lead ions and creates a purple color. The current iteration detects lead at 100 parts per billion (ppb).


A 3D Cellular Automata Cancer Stem Cell Model using MATLAB and App Designer

This is a flexible and user-friendly 3D cellular automata model that uses MathWorks’ MATLAB and App Designer to simulate cancer tumor growth that takes into account certain types of Cancer Stem Cell (CSC) behavior. A Cellular Automata model, or a grid containing cells with rules governing their current state, is ideal for MATLAB (Matrix Laboratory) in that each “cell” location can be a grid point in a 2D or 3D matrix and subsequent element-wise operations can be applied to simulate tumor growth. The simulation begins by taking in several cellular automata inputs: dimensions of the viewing area (where each unit represents a cell), how long (or how many cycles) the simulation will run, and the neighborhood. Each cycle, the tumor growth depends on the maximum lifespan of a non-CSC cell, the probability that a cell divides (proliferates), migrates to a different location, dies, or symmetrically divides (symmetric is when a CSC divides into two CSCs, asymmetric is when a CSC divides into a CSC and a non-CSC cancer cell). Using these inputs, my MATLAB/App Designer model simulates the growth of a tumor from a single CSC and outputs the number of CSCs and the total number of cells and plots the spatial cell distribution in the 3D array. This is an analysis of how each of the factors impact the cancer stem cell and non-cancer stem cell growth rates and I found that the results from the model seem to be consistent with the expected results. The idea is to make sure that any cancer treatment targets cancer stem cells to ensure that the cancer is eradicated. In the near future, I would also like to enhance the model and incorporate angiogenesis and metastasis somehow to make it more accurate, as the ability to migrate to distant sites is something that needs to be considered for successful treatment.


Magnetic Monopoles

Though both electrostatics and
magnetostatics might have started around the same time, but we came in contact with the law of magnetostatics when we learnt the basic difference between magnetostatics and electrostatics: THERE IS NO FREE MAGNETIC CHARGE. The only link between them was the fact that currents which produce magnetic fields are electrical in character, being charges in motion. Ampère first speculated that all magnetic effects are attributable to electric charges in motion (currents). We still don’t know whether magnetic monopoles exist in nature, though we need them for some recent elementary particle theories such as STRING THEORY.
Also, it is not possible for us to separate the north and the south pole in the magnet because magnets are made up of little domains, each having their own magnetic fields. But, according to faraday, in principle, it seems possible that we can have some other kind of fundamental particle that can exist by itself in the vacuum of space which would just have one pole called monopole.
Paul Dirac realized that the existence of even a single magnetic monopole as fundamental particle in the entire observable universe would be enough to explain the quantization of all the electric charges and provided us the Dirac Quantization Condition. Therefore , the hunt of magnetic monopoles began using the particle accelerators such as LHC, in cosmic rays, by making spin ices and many more. Certain materials such as spin ices can behave though they contain a free gas of magnetic monopoles which are unconfined and free to move in the crystal.
Maybe magnetic monopoles are too rare in nature or too heavy to produce in particle accelerators but their detection will give us symmetry between Maxwell's equations of electricity and magnetism and a true explanation of quantized electric charge. Thus, the search has to continue.

Nanomaterials - A quantum phenomenon

We are living in an era where Nanoscience has become a prominent part of our lives. Every other day, we've been trying to improve the technology and reducing the size to our optimum efforts. Catalytic technologies are critical to present and future energy,
chemical process, and environmental industries. By decreasing the size of catalytic particles, one can alter the intrinsic
catalytic performance beyond simply expanding surface area. Metal nanoparticles have been used to catalyse the growth of carbon nanotubes which can be used as a cathode catalytic support for fuel cells.
Palladium is considered to be one of the most versatile metal catalysts used in industry and is hence Up to 75% of hydrogenation reactions are carried out over Pd/C catalysts. But the remarkable properties of CNTs like relatively light weight and strong in nature, make them worth to be considered as a replacement
for Pd metal catalysts. Not only this, Iron oxide and cobalt nanoparticles when loaded onto various surface active materials like alumina , they can convert gases such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbon fuels using the Fischer-Tropsch process.
Despite gold being unreactive in bulk, it's nanoparticles exhibit tremendous applications as catalysis. In pollution control applications, such as air cleaning, low light-off autocatalysts, and purification of hydrogen streams used for fuel cells, gold nanoparticles have become the best choice due to their durability and resistance to poisons. Concluding, nanoparticles electrodeposited on multi-walled carbon nanotubes have shown good activity towards catalysis of cross-coupling reactions.
Q-sized particles due to their high surface area to volume ratios, enhances their catalytic activity .


"Eco-SNap" - Investigation of Utilizing Spent Coffee Ground in Sustainable Sanitary Napkins

As a girl, I see and understand that sanitary napkins are a necessity. Unfortunately, sanitary napkins are made up of plastics and can take hundreds of years to degrade, thus contributing to the plastic problem. On the other hand, Indonesia is one of the world’s top producers of coffee, with consumption demand within the country also steadily increasing. Hence, we produce a significant amount of coffee related organic waste per year, notably Spent Coffee Grounds (SCG). This is concerning, as incorrect disposal of SCG can lead to it releasing methane, a greenhouse gas. I plan to combine these two issues to create sustainable sanitary napkins, using extracted cellulose pulp from SCG as the pad’s absorbent core. This study aims to reduce plastic pollution, while finding a way to utilise a common organic waste this country produces. The methodology will comprise of 5 steps: (1) Cellulose extraction from SCG, (2) Formation of the sanitary napkins, (3) Testing of sanitary napkins compared to commercial napkins, (4) Data collection, and (5) Data analysis of both inferential and descriptive statistics. The testing of sanitary napkins (step 3) is aimed at observing the potential of this coffee based sanitary napkin to be applied on a daily basis. Three tests will be conducted on the coffee pad’s maximum capacity (g), absorption rate (g/s) and moisture retention (%) throughout 5 trials for each test. Data collection will thus be in the form of quantitative research. For data analysis (step 5), descriptive statistics will be collected through average calculations, error bars, and bar graphs. Meanwhile, inferential statistics will be collected using the Standard-T test. As this is still a research design and the experiment cannot be carried out yet due to the current circumstances, conclusions to the investigation are still unable to be drawn.


Biodegradation of Styrofoam by Gut Bacterium Exiguobacterium found in the digestive tract of the larvae of Zophobas morio

The purpose of this research is to support reducing the harmful environmental effects caused by the globally used plastic, Styofoam, which is considered as impossible to recycle with the traditional ways. Wasted Styrofoam does not have any commercial value, so companies prefer to get rid of them by burning it, which leads to the production of CO2 and C8H8 (styrene gas). These gases contribute to global warming, so the objective of this research is to find a more efficient organism that has the potential to minimize the harmful effects of Styrofoam.

Styrofoam waste has an extensive negative effect on the environment, and these effects contribute to global warming in the long term. The aim of this investigation is to better understand the ability of the larva of Zophobas morio to degrade “non-biodegradable” plastic Styrofoam. Since plastic pollution causes countless damages to the environment and ecosystems, it is a necessary action to develop practical methods to degrade plastic waste. In order to minimize the negative effects of the Styrofoam on nature and humanity, this research article focuses on an alternative method of disposing of the Styrofoam waste.
For 10 days, the mass of Styrofoam consumption of 500 larvae of Zophobas morio was recorded, during which 10% of the tested Styrofoam wastes were decomposed. When compared to the results of the previous research done by Stanford University, the results of our research project suggest that using the larva of Zophobas morio can become an alternative method for Styrofoam degradation operations if supported by a well-structured plan.
Recently, an artificial plastic island, Great Pacific Garbage Patch, was formed in the Pacific Ocean. This colossal accumulation of plastic is a concrete evidence of the devastation caused by non-biodegradable wastes. The aim of this research is to change the negative direction of this scenario.

Portable Thermoelectric mobile charger

The average human consumes approximately 2000 Calories per day. This means that the average person expends 8.37 x 10^6 joules of energy per day, since most of us are in some sort of equilibrium with our surroundings. Assuming most of this energy leaves us in the form of heat, on average we radiate ~350,000 J of energy per hour ( Around 97 Watt ). This project aims at converting heat energy dissipated through the human into into electrical energy to charge mobile phones. Cell phones use approximately 2-6 volts when charging. Thus, the objectives of the research were to design a portable thermoelectric charger and produce an output voltage of about 5V (USB Port).

Elements used :

Bil. Component Types Total [RM]
1. Teg TEC-12706-1.5 140.00
2. IC L7850CV 18.00
3. Resistor 470ohm 0.80
2kohm 0.80
1kohm 0.80
4. Capacitor 0.33uF 1.60
0.1uF 1.60
5. LEDs Red 0.80
Green 0.80
6. Accessories PCB Board 15.00
Stand Kits 10.00
Jumper/Wire 10.00
I/O Terminal 8.00
Female USB Type A 8.00
Heat Sink 10.00
Multi USB Output 25.00
Hand holder 20.00
Candle 10.00
Thermal Paste 11.00
7. Other Acid 10.00
Glossily Paper 9.00
Box 2.00
Double sided tape 2.80
Total 316.00*

Findings showed that for a temperature difference of about 50 K , 0.4 volts of voltage was generated and for a temperature difference of 100 K, about 0.9 volts of voltage was generated.
We further use the LTC3108 , a highly integrated DC/DC converter ideal for harvesting and managing surplus energy from extremely low input voltage sources. It is connected to a step up transformer. The step up transformer turns ratio determines how low the input voltage can be for the converter to start. Using a 1:100 ratio can yield start up voltages as low as 20 mv ( much less than voltage generated by human hand )
A band of 4 thermoelectric modules is wore on the wrist which is surrounded a water tank to provide the necessary temperature difference. Aluminium will be used for water tank due to being cheaper in cost and greater in performance. The area in contact with human hand counts as cold side and the area in contact with water tank counts as cold side. Even with all the thermal and voltage generation losses, there was still enough power in the human hand to charge most cellular phones. The results showed that some of the unused energy that has been wasted in the form of heat is utilized in charging a mobile phone using thermo-electric conversion.


The Effects of Internet-Based Technology on Human Memory

As our society becomes increasingly dependent on the Internet, the exchange and acquisition of information have been made easier and faster than ever before. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the Internet plays a role in a transactive memory system with humans and its comparative effects on transactive memory and semantic memory. The study is split into two experimental phases (Phases 1 and 2), in which twenty and twenty-two volunteers participated, respectively. The results suggest that when people expect to have future access to information, their recall rates of the information itself (semantic memory) are lower, regardless of explicit memory instructions (Phase 1), and depending on whether the information or where it can be accessed is attempted to be recalled first, people have enhanced recall for the information (semantic memory) or for where to access it (transactive memory), respectively (Phase 2). The Internet has become a transactive memory source for its users across the world, who now remember, not the desired information, but where and how to access it on the Internet through various means of technology. The common perception of declining memory as an increasing proportion of society plugs into the Internet may be invalid, as we are simply remembering different things, that is where the desired information can be found, rather than the information itself. Future research is required to examine changes in social dynamics due to increasing numbers of Internet users and the resulting ethical implications.


Hubble's Law and the Expasion of the Universe

Hubble identified a variable Cepheid star, which provided a means of determining distance by comparing a photo he had just taken of the Andromeda galaxy with photos that he had taken in the previous nights. In the months that followed, Hubble found that the star's brightness varied over a period of 31.45 days, meaning that it was 7,000 times brighter than the Sun. Hubble compared its apparent brightness to its actual brightness and found that it was 900,000 light years away. In 1929, Hubble published his research which provided evidence that galaxies are moving away from us at different speeds depending on their distance from us and that the universe is expanding and we believe that a dark energy is the reason for this expansion. This research then became known as “Hubble’s Law”. Edwin Hubble used the Doppler effect to determine that the universe is expanding. Hubble discovered that light from distant galaxies shifted to lower frequencies to the red end of the spectrum. This is known as a red Doppler shift or red shift. Hubble’s constant, is known to currently be 2.4 x 10^-18 s^-1 or around 67 kms^-1Mpc^-1. There have been many new calculations to obtain the true value of Hubble’s constant but there still have been disagreements. These differences in values can cause issues in the way we observe the universe and could lead to a whole new path in physics and astronomy.
In this report I aim to explain how and why the universe is expanding, how the value of Hubble’s constant is calculated, why there are discrepancies in the value, and the future of the universe and physics. I will have achieved my aim if I have shown through my experiments using the virtual laboratory provided by Ulster University, how the universe is expanding and described fully how and why this is occurring, if I am able to describe why there are differences in the value for Hubble’s constant, and what will happen if the values for Hubble’s constant is different. To achieve my aim I need to research online and use my own knowledge to understand Hubble’s law more thoroughly to understand and investigate my aims.


Germs are everywhere

Bacteria are single-celled organisms; they are so small that we cannot see them. They are visible only under a microscope. So how can we figure out which surface has the most germs in our school? As bacteria grow very fast, we will use this to our advantage, and will take samples from different touched surfaces in our school and then grow the samples on nutrient agar (a special medium for bacterial growth) Daily we will count the bacterial growth on different samples and compare them. The second objective was to see if hand sanitizers inhibit bacterial growth or not.
A short survey was conducted in school to assess and get the opinion of the students regarding the most germ-infested place in our school. After that samples were collected from different door knobs in our school, the samples were cultured on nutrient plates and incubated for 72 hours. The petri dishes were monitored every 24 hours and the size of the bacterial colonies were noted.
According to the survey most of the students voted the bathroom door knobs as the dirtiest, same as the original hypothesis. Although after analyzing the results we found out that the water cooler knob was the dirtiest place in school. Furthermore, sanitizer was added to the nutrient plate with the most colonies after 24 hours of incubation the results showed decreased number of colonies in the nutrient plate.
After analysis, we saw that the dirtiest place in the school was the water cooler knob which negates the first part of our hypothesis, whereas on the other hand the results confirm the second part of the hypothesis which was that sanitizers reduce bacterial growth.